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Summary of Ghunnah ( The Nasal sound )

Definition :

  The nasal sound is emitted from the nose. This is a required attribute of Noon and Meem attributes. Ghunnah can not be separated out of these letters and it is an integral part of their composition.

Degrees of Ghunnah :

The Ghunnah is decomposed into four levels , which are :

1- The most completed Ghunnah ( The longest Ghunnah ever ) : It is found in Noon and Meem ( with shaddah above them ) or in Idgham with Ghunnah if one of these letters ( ن م ي و ) is preceded by a Noon sakinah or a Tanween . 2- The completed Ghunnah ( The second longest ghunnah ) : It is found in Al-Ikhfaa’ Alhaqiqi , Al-Ikhfaa’ Ash-Shafawi and Al-Iqlab 3- The incompleted Ghunnah ( The short Ghunnah ) : It is found when reciting Noon and Meem ( with sukoon above it ) with Iz-haar . 4- The most incompleted Ghunnah ( The shortest Ghunnah ever ) : It is found when reciting the Noon and Meem with vowels . *As you can see , the difference between these degrees is the time of these types of Ghunnah , and this difference in timing is very small.

The lengthenings (Al-Mudood ) :

*Proof of Madd Qatada said: I asked Anas about reciting the Holy Quran to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) He said: He used to express long dialects clearly. True (Albanian)(Sahih Al-Albani) *Its definition of language: additional *Its applicable definition: Extend the sound with a letter of the Madd letters.
*These letters are found in the following cases:
1-The Yaa’ sakinah which is preceded by a letter having Kasrah . 2-The Wow sakinah which is preceded by a letter having Dhammah . 3-The Alif sakinah which is preceded by a letter having Fat-ha . *The two leen letters appear in one word such as : -The Wow with sukoon preceded by a Fat-ha ( قَوْل ) . -The Yaa’ with sukoon preceded by a Fat-ha ( البَيْت) . *Let’s begin with the natural lengthening ( Al-Madd Al-Tabe’ee ) : It is the lengthening which the letter is not exist without , and the Hamzah or the Sukoon can not stop it . – Its Significance: There must be no Hamzah before him, nor should Hamza or Sukoon be after it. It is called the original because it is the origin of all the lengthenings and is called naturally because the person with the natural scale will not increase its measurement or reduce it. Its timing: It is lengthened with a measure of two vowel counts . Note : The time of each count depends on the reciter’s speed . -Each vowel must be equal to the other in counting , and the lengthening of two, four, five, and six must be equal censuses with many vowels. -All voweled letters have the same time . Two vowel counts means that the time which is needed to enunciate two successive voweled letters with Fat-ha , Dhammah or Kasrah. -All vowels should look like a shortened version of their origin. The Alif is the origin of Fat-ha, and the long Wow is the origin of Dhammah, and the long Yaa’ is the origin of Kasrah. The reader should be careful not to enunciate these letters incorrectly, as in case of enunciating the Kasrah between the Kasrah and the Fatha. -Some readers accidentally open the sides of the mouth to get Fat-ha instead of opening the mouth vertically appropriately; this mistake’s result is called Imalah (tilting). -Other readers do not make a full circle of their lips to get a Dhammah and the resulting sound is like the sound of English. Another mistake that readers may commit is not to completely reduce the jaw for the Kasrah, and the output sound is abbreviated (أ) or (ae). We should not leave our mouths lazy; the correct way to spell vowels is to move the mouth and jaw more than the wrong way.

-Examples of the natural madd :

فعَّال – فعُول – فعِيل In these three words, the natural madd with different madd letters will have timed charges of two vowels. -These words have a natural madd as long as we do not stop on them. As previously mentioned in the signs of the natural madd, there can be no sukoon after the madd letter, then this madd is no longer considered as a natural madd, but will be a different kind of madd, to discuss in the latter. The natural madd letters are known As ( حَىٌّ طَهِرْ ). If one of these letters is at the beginning of a Surah so that letter os enunciated with two vowel counts . Such as : حم is enunciated as حا ميم
*Madd Assilah Assughrah ( The less connecting lengthening ) :
It is a madd that comes from vowel on a (consciences or possessive consciences) Haa’ being the last letter in a word that is not part of the original composition of the word, which represents the third person singular male. It is said literally either with Kasrah or Dhammah, positioned between two letters of vowels , the reader does not stop on it,and it does not be followed by Hamza. When all of these requirements are met, the Dhammah of the Haa’ will be lengthened into the lengthened Wow or being the Kasrah on a Haa’, it will be lengthened into the lengthened Yaa’ , and when we stop at this, we stop with a regular Sukoon, and drop two counts madd . -Example : إِنَّهُ بِعِبَادِهِ خَبِيرٌ بَصِيرٌ The Haa’ which is at the end of the word بِعِبَادِ هِ is a pronoun and it is not a part from the original word. and it positioned between two letters having vowels wich are Daal with Kasrah and Khaa’ with Fat-ha . We have to lengthen the Kasrah on the Haa’ to be as length as the lengthened wow if we don’t stop on this word and continuing to read, and this appears as a small Wow after the Haa’ . This Haa’ must not have a sukoon above it :

قَالُوا أَرْجِهْ وَأَخَاهُ

The Haa’ above has a sukoon above , so this is not a madd . So there exceptions for this rule : 1- The exception mentioned above . 2-A madd is achieved although all the conditions haven’t met :

يَخْلُدْ فِيهِ مُهَانَا

*The substitutional lengthening ( Madd Al_’Awad )
It is the substitution of a lengthened Alif for the tanween of Fat-h when we stop on the word . This prolongation is two counts, that means, the length of two letters with vowels, it is the same in counting as the natural prolongation. Whether there is an Alif which is written after the message with the Tanween or not this madd occurs. When you continue to read and do not stop on the word containing Tanween of Fat-h, this prolongation vanishes, and the rules of the Noon having a sukoon above are applied to the Tanween. The Alif which is written after the Tanween will be dropped when continuing reading. -Examples : أَبَدًا ← أَبَدَا
-Exceptions :
The female Haa’ in Arabic which is represented as a( ـة )when linked is not included in this mad , This is occurring at the end of nouns, referring to the female sex. This letter is always read as Haa’ Sakinah when we stop on the word, and it is always read as a Taa’ if we continue. When the noun with the female Haa’ has a tanween of Fat-h then the word must stop using Haa’ Sakinah and there is no Alif alternative to tanween. These are found in words such as نعمة, رحمة enunciated as نعمه, رحمه.

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