In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent the Most Merciful; all praises are due to Allah the Lord of the Universe and may His peace and blessing be upon the prophet Muhammad. Iman is to believe in Allah, His Angels, His Holy Books, His Messengers, the Last Day (day of judgment) and to believe in predestination – the good and bad of (what is within) it. Iman is patient and forbearance according to a Hadith in Musnad Imam Ahmad, and the former definition of Iman is well known as it’s in a well know Hadith that is referred to by some scholars as to the mother of the Sunnah (Prophetic tradition) or the Hadith of Gabriel (upon whom be peace). In another Hadith, the Prophet [s.a.w] said: A believer is one whom the people can entrust their wealth and honor [to him]. Iman can sometimes be viewed as the spiritual aspect of Islam that is all deeds that are related to the heart as opposed to those done physically. But Ahl-Sunnah considered Iman to refer to all of the beliefs, sayings, and actions of a Muslim and this is the most correct definition of it with regard to proofs from the Quran and authentic Sunnah. Also, Iman and Mu’min are most often used in place of Islam and Muslims interchangeably but some scholars, however, differentiate the two. They said if they are used together then the former means the spiritual deeds whereas the latter represents the apparent actions of the Muslim. Also, other scholars say that a Mu’min is more of a believer and devotee than a simple Muslim is, and this view has strong backing from the Quran and Sunnah; Allah says in chapter 49 verse 14: The Bedouins (those living in the desert) say, “We have believed.” Say, “You have not [yet] believed; but say [instead], ‘We have submitted [to Allah],’ for faith [Iman] has not yet entered your hearts. And if you obey Allah and His Messenger, He will not deprive you of [the reward of] your deeds of anything. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” And in a Hadith, one of the companions called someone a believer in the presence of the Prophet [upon whom be peace] the Prophet said rather [he is a] Muslim indicating that this person has not yet reached the level to be called a believer [Mu’min] which allowed him to be distinguished. There are several Quranic verses and Hadiths that command faith and appraise those having strong faith. To name a few: Indeed, those who have believed and those who have emigrated and fought in the cause of Allah – those [are the ones who] expect the mercy of Allah. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. [Al-Baqarah 2:218]. Indeed, those who have believed and done righteous deeds – they will have the Gardens of [the highest] Paradise as a residence. Wherein they abide eternally. They will not desire from it any transfer [to another place]. [Al-Kahf 18: 107 &108]. And in the first 11 verses of chapter 23 [A-Mu’minoon], Allah the Almighty said: Certainly, successful indeed are the believers. They who are during their prayer humbly submissive. And they who turn away from ill speech. And they who are observant of charity [zakah]. And they who guard their private parts. Except for their wives or those their right hands possess, for indeed, they will not be blamed – But whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors – And they who are to their trusts and their promises [covenants] attentive. And they who are carefully watchful of their prayers – Those are the inheritors [of Paradise]. Who will inherit al-Firdaus [the highest station in Paradise]? They will abide therein forever. Abu Huraira [may Allah be pleased with him] reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace, and blessings be upon him, said, “By the one in whose hand is the soul of Muhammad, none from this nation of Jews and Christians who hears of me, and then dies without believing in my message, except that he will be an inhabitant of Hellfire.”[Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 153]. The Messenger further said: None will taste the sweetness of faith until he loves a person only for the sake of Allah until he would rather be thrown in the fire than to return to unbelief, and until Allah and His messenger are dearer to him than anything else. [Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 5694. Agreed upon Hadith].

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